### 1. Introduction

*et al.*[11] showed that the fractal growth of dendrites is mainly affected by the concentration of the electrolyte and applied potential or current. L. Avramović

*et al.*[2] showed that the current density affects the degree of hydrogen precipitation during electrolysis which alters the dispersion of the deposited copper.

### 2. Experimental

### 3. Results and Discussion

### 3.1. Current-time evolution

### 3.2. Growth regimes

### 3.3. Fractal dimension

_{f}is the so-called fractal dimension [13].

#### 3.3.1 Growth time

#### 3.3.2 Applied voltage

^{2+}, 1.00 mol/L H

_{2}SO

_{4}with applied voltages of 3 V, 6 V, 9 V, 12 V and 15 V, respectively, for 4 min.

*et al.*[14] and C. P. Chen

*et al.*[8] found fluctuations in the fractal dimension of Znic deposition products with the applied voltage in their respective studies of Znic electrodeposition products.

#### 3.3.3 Concentration of copper ion

^{2+}concentration. However, the complexity and variability of the ions in the electrodeposition system make it difficult to control the instantaneous concentration of Cu

^{2+}. Therefore, in this stage, the effect of copper ion concentration parameters on the electrodeposited copper fractal morphology was investigated.

#### 3.3.4 Concentration of H_{2}SO_{4}

### 3.4. Integrated experiments

^{2+}= 0.40 mol/L, H

_{2}SO

_{4}= 0.01 mol/L, 12 V, 4 min; (b) Cu

^{2+}= 0.40 mol/L, H

_{2}SO

_{4}= 1.00 mol/L, 12 V, 4 min) growth process (see S1 and S2) and carried out morphological analysis at different magnifications (×30, ×90, ×200) (Fig. 9). At the same time, the fractal dimension of the different deposited copper was evaluated and the corresponding values were obtained (see Table 1).